key terms:

  • Ion- An atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge.
  • Cation- An ion that has a positive charge; forms when valence electrons are removed, giving the ion a stable electron configuration.
  • Anion- An ion that has a negative charge; forms when valence electrons are added to the outer energy level, giving the ion a stable electron configuration.
  • Valence Electrons- The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element.
  • Oxidation number- The positive or negative charge of a monatomic ion.
  • Electron Configuration- The arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules-the aufbauuu principle- The Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule.
  • Radioactivity- The process in which some substances spontaneously emit radiation

What are the differences between alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays?

Composition and Charge:

Alpha particles are basically helium nuclei composed of two neutrons and two protons. The protons give alpha particles a positive charge. Beta particles are fast moving electrons and are negatively charged. Gamma rays are a form of energy that is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are neutral.

Speed and Penetration:

Alpha particles travel at about 1/20th the speed of light and can easily be blocked by paper. Beta particles travel almost at the speed of light and can be blocked by an aluminium sheet. Gamma rays travels at the speed of light and can only be blocked by a few centimetres of lead.

Deflection in a magnetic field:

Alpha particles are heavy and deflect very little in a magnetic field. Beta particles are lighter and have the greatest deflection in a magnetic field. Gamma rays are neutral and so do not undergo any deflection.
external image alphaparticle.gif external image betapartflat.jpgexternal image gamma_rad.gif

This video should better your understanding of dimensional analysis. (its pretty straight foward compared to the other one.)

Video explaining what SI values are how they're used and even how to use them on a calculator.

This video also gives a peek at what dimensional analysis is and how to convert a measurement from one unit to another.
external image Ion%20formation.jpgOrbitals



(1) Shape of ‘s’ orbital

(i) For ‘s’ orbital l=0 & m=0 so ‘s’ orbital have only one unidirectional orientation i.e. the probability of finding the electrons is same in all directions.
(ii) The size and energy of ‘s’ orbital with increasing ‘n’ will be 1s < 2s < 3s < 4s


Electron configuration:

external image periodic%20table%20A.jpg

Charge of an ion based on its location on the periodic table:

external image ptable4.gif

Group 1- +1 charge
Group 2- +2 charge
Group 13- +3 charge
Group 14- +4 charge
Group 15- -3charge
Group 16- -2 charge
Group 17- -1 charge

This is the valence electrons displayed on the periodic table
This is the valence electrons displayed on the periodic table

A brief tutorial on electron configuration:

valance electron:an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules

electron configuration:In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons of an atom, a molecule, or other physical structure. It concerns the way electrons can be distributed in the orbitals of the given system (atomic or molecular for instance).

for more information on electron configuration go to the link below

the electron configuration

Energy sublevels in electronic configuration
Energy sublevels in electronic configuration

Ions based on Periodic Table

Element charges on small molecules such as this can be deduced with formal charge assignments.
Element charges on small molecules such as this can be deduced with formal charge assignments.

There are several ways to determine element ion number. The periodic table offers an excellent starting point for assigning formal charge, especially for lighter---therefore electronically simpler---elements. It is possible to deduce formal charge from proportional element amounts in a molecule. Chemical names, such as "lead (IV) or "iron (III)" also reveal possible ionic states. Experiments with solutions and mass spectrometers provide a way to fill information gaps concerning ionic charges.

for instructions go to the link giving in the bottom!!!
Read more: How to Find the Number of Ions in an Element |

Alpha,Beta,and Gamma Rays

Gamma raya have a rest mass of zero
Alpha ray's mass is is 6.64424 × 10-27 kg, or 3.7273 × 109 eV.
The mass of a Beta ray is 0.000544662309 amu

Gaining and Losing Electrons



Radioactivity: The spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nucleus of an unstable isotope. Also, the rate at which radioactive material emits radiation. Measured in units of becquerels or disintegrations per second.

Gaining and Losing Electrons

more information go to:


external image DensityFormula.jpg

Shapes of atomic orbitals

The atomic orbitals differ in shape. That is, the electrons they describe have different probability distributions around the nucleus. Indeed, a part of the reason why orbitals differ in energy is that the electrons that occupy them are likely to be found in different regions around the parent nucleus and hence experience the latter’s attraction with different strengths. The fact that all orbitals of a given shell in the hydrogen atom have the same energy despite having different shapes is surprising and is associated with a cancellation of different contributions to the energy.

Atomic orbitals poster
Atomic orbitals poster
  1. Watch the Video for the shapes of the orbitals.

prefixes song (:!!!!!!!!!!

Differentiating Alpha, Beta and Gama Waves

Ion formation

external image esi2.gif

ion formation

external image 142naposion.GIF

external image elevels.GIF

Water within cells contains charged atoms, called ions.

external image Ion%20formation.jpg


Electron Configuration